Research in the Kulik group

Research in the Kulik group leverages computational modeling to aid the discovery of new materials and mechanisms. Our group uses first-principles modeling to unearth fundamental aspects of structure-property relationships in catalysts and materials. By taking a computational approach, we carry out studies that allow us to make connections across a wide range of catalytic systems from biological enzymes to emerging heterogeneous single-atom catalysts. We develop computational software and machine learning models that accelerate the discovery of new materials and design rules. This approach enables the prediction of new materials properties in seconds, the exploration of million-compound design spaces, and the identification of design rules and exceptions that go beyond intuition. To ensure the predictive power of our approach, our group develops new methods to increase the accuracy of density functional theory especially for materials with challenging electronic structure such as transition metal complexes and solids.

Read more about our group’s work in the recently published papers below!


Chem. Rev. on ML for transition metals is out!

Transition-metal complexes are attractive targets for the design of catalysts and functional materials. The behavior of the metal–organic bond, while very tunable for achieving target properties, is challenging to predict and necessitates searching a wide and complex space to identify needles in haystacks for target applications. This review will focus on the techniques that make high-throughput search of transition-metal chemical space feasible for the discovery of complexes with desirable properties.

Electronic allostery in protein dynamics

The delicate interplay of covalent and noncovalent interactions in proteins is inherently quantum mechanical and highly dynamic in nature. To directly interrogate the evolving nature of the electronic structure of proteins, we carry out 100-ps-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of three representative small proteins with range-separated hybrid density functional theory. We quantify the nature and length-scale of the coupling of residue-specific charge probability distributions in these proteins.

What's needed for intelligent workflows?

Accelerated discovery with machine learning (ML) has begun to provide the advances in efficiency needed to overcome the combinatorial challenge of computational materials design. Nevertheless, ML-accelerated discovery both inherits the biases of training data derived from density functional theory (DFT) and leads to many attempted calculations that are doomed to fail. Many compelling functional materials and catalytic processes involve strained chemical bonds, open-shell radicals and diradicals, or metal–organic bonds to open-shell transition-metal centers.

Molecular DFT+U for delocalization error

While density functional theory (DFT) is widely applied for its combination of cost and accuracy, corrections (e.g., DFT+U) that improve it are often needed to tackle correlated transition-metal chemistry. In principle, the functional form of DFT+U, consisting of a set of localized atomic orbitals (AO) and a quadratic energy penalty for deviation from integer occupations of those AOs, enables the recovery of the exact conditions of piecewise linearity and the derivative discontinuity.

Where are the stars in chemical space?

The variability of chemical bonding in open-shell transition-metal complexes not only motivates their study as functional materials and catalysts but also challenges conventional computational modeling tools. Here, tailoring ligand chemistry can alter preferred spin or oxidation states as well as electronic structure properties and reactivity, creating vast regions of chemical space to explore when designing new materials atom by atom.

Why do conventional catalyst design rules fail?

The design of selective and active C–H activation catalysts for direct methane-to-methanol conversion is challenging. Bioinspired complexes that form high-valent metal–oxo intermediates capable of hydrogen abstraction and rebound hydroxylation are promising candidates. This promise has made them a target for computational high-throughput screening, typically simplified through the use of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). However, their mid-row transition-metal centers have numerous accessible spin and oxidation states that increase the combinatorial scale of design efforts.

When are two hydrogen bonds better than one?

Hydrogen bonds (HBs) play an essential role in the structure and catalytic action of enzymes, but a complete understanding of HBs in proteins challenges the resolution of modern structural (i.e., X-ray diffraction) techniques and mandates computationally demanding electronic structure methods from correlated wavefunction theory for predictive accuracy. Numerous amino acid sidechains contain functional groups (e.g., hydroxyls in Ser/Thr or Tyr and amides in Asn/Gln) that can act as either HB acceptors or donors (HBA/HBD) and even form simultaneous, ambifunctional HB interactions.

Detecting strong correlation with ML

Despite its widespread use in chemical discovery, approximate density functional theory (DFT) is poorly suited to many targets, such as those containing open-shell, 3d transition metals that can be expected to have strong multi-reference (MR) character. For discovery workflows to be predictive, we need automated, low-cost methods that can distinguish the regions of chemical space where DFT should be applied from those where it should not.

Moving on up: 3d vs 4d TMCs in DFT

Density functional theory (DFT) is widely used in transition-metal chemistry, yet essential properties such as spin-state energetics in transition-metal complexes (TMCs) are well known to be sensitive to the choice of the exchange–correlation functional. Increasing the amount of exchange in a functional typically shifts the preferred ground state in first-row TMCs from low-spin to high-spin by penalizing delocalization error, but the effect on properties of second-row complexes is less well known.

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About Us

The Kulik group focuses on the development and application of new electronic structure methods and atomistic simulations tools in the broad area of catalysis.

Our Interests

We are interested in transition metal chemistry, with applications from biological systems (i.e. enzymes) to nonbiological applications in surface science and molecular catalysis.

Our Focus

A key focus of our group is to understand mechanistic features of complex catalysts and to facilitate and develop tools for computationally driven design.

Contact Us

Questions or comments? Let us know! Contact Dr. Kulik: